Phase of Transformation From Receiving Foreign Assistance to Providing Assistance to Foreign Countries (1957~1971)
The external cooperation of this phase was characterized by a gradual transformation from receiving assistance from other countries to providing assistance to other countries and from cooperating with the former USSR and East European countries to cooperating with the third-world countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Following the rehabilitation of the national economy and the successful accomplishment of the First Five-Year Plan, the national economy scored considerable development, some construction experience was preliminarily accumulated and a group of specialized technical personnel grew up and played an increasingly greater role in mineral activities. With large numbers of technical specialists in possession, China began to dispatch geologists to other countries such as Cuba, Mongolia and Cambodia at the invitation of their respective governments to assist them in carrying out geological and mineral reconnaissance and prospecting from 1957. Then from 1962 on, the Sino-USSR cooperative activities greatly diminished due to the twists and turns in the relationship between the two countries on the one hand, and China’s external cooperation and intercourse in mineral industry got strengthened as a result of the development of the relations between China and over 30 third-world countries on the other hand. China’s cooperation with third-world countries in mineral industry covered two areas:¢Ù dispatching experts to help recipient countries to conduct mineral resources exploration so as to prepare raw materials bases for mine construction;¢Ú dispatching specialists and drilling teams to assist recipient countries in the search and development of groundwater so as to help overcome the difficulties in the use of water for industrial and agricultural production and the livelihood of the local people. Starting from the 60s, with the cooperation and exchange with the third-world countries strengthened, China’s Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources successively sent out 128 groups and operation teams to 37 countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America and Europe to assist in looking for groundwater and well drilling and completion and accomplished 165 operation projects with 738 wells completed. In the process of completing these projects the Chinese engineers and technicians implemented strictly and conscientiously the Chinese government’s principles and policies on external cooperation, observed the laws, customs and habits of the recipient countries, paid due attention to the training of local technical forces, transferred to them the technologies for groundwater search and well drilling and completion without reservation, and thus were highly evaluated and appreciated by the recipient countries.
Phase of Initial Bidirectional Cooperation (1972~1978)
As an important feature of China’s external cooperation and intercourse,…